Anti Tobacco Day
May 31, 2020
World No tobacco Day or Anti Tobacco Day emphasizes on the health and other risks associated with tobacco use and advocating for effective policies to reduce tobacco consumption
Common Constituents of Cigarette Smoke
The constituents of smoke are contained in either the particulate phase or gas phase.
Particulate phase components include tar, polynuclear hydrocarbons, phynol, cresol, catechol and trace elements (carcinogens), nicotine (ganglion stimulator and depressor), indole, carbazole (tumor accelerators), and 4-aminobiphenyl.
Gas phase contains carbon monoxide (impairs oxygen transport and utilization), hydrocyanic acid, acetaldehyde, acrolein, ammonia, formaldehyde and oxides of nitrogen (cilitoxin and irritant) nitrosamines, hydrazine and vinyl chloride (carcinogens).
Adverse Effects of Smoking on the Body
Smokers are at greater risk for cardiovascular diseases (ischaemic heart disease, hypertension), respiratory disorders bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma), cancer (lung, pancreas, breast, liver, bladder, oral, larynx, esophagus, stomach and kidney), peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), male impotence and infertility, lindness, hearing loss, bone matrix loss, and hepatotoxicity.
If you are a current or former smoker, tobacco has taken a toll on your body. Learn which important medical tests you should undergo periodically.
Smokers are susceptible to many chronic, debilitating age-related diseases including type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes.
People who smoke less than a pack of cigarettes a day have about a 44% increased risk of developing diabetes compared to nonsmokers, according to a 2007 Swiss study published in the JAMA.
Researchers at the University of Lausanne looked at data from 1.2 million people over the age of 30. The longer and more frequently someone smokes, the greater the diabetes risk, researchers found.
Diabetes tests include:
Fasting blood glucose level, which measures blood sugar when you haven’t eaten in eight hours
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), which shows average blood glucose levels over three months
Vitamin D Blood Test
If you smoke, or used to – and you’re over 50 – get a simple blood test to measure vitamin D levels as part of your annual checkup.
More than 95% of smokers had insufficient blood levels of vitamin D in the winter (when little is absorbed from sunlight),according to a 2011 study published in the European Respiratory Journal.
Vitamin D deficiency – defined as less than 20 nanograms per milliliter of blood – has been associated with many lung problems.
Among smokers, this deficiency can lead to reduced lung function and faster decline in lung health, according to an October 2012 study in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Sunshine helps your body make vitamin D, but many people need supplements to get 600 International Units (IU) daily, the amount recommended by the Institute of Medicine for adults under age 70.
Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) is a modifiable risk factor of cardiovascular disease and the leading cause of death and disability. Active TSE and passive TSE are differentially associated with factors within the lipid profile and adiposity, independent of covariates. TSE prevention efforts should start as early as childhood and continue throughout adolescence and adulthood.
Smoking is the biggest preventable cause of cancer globally. Chemicals in cigarette smoke enter our blood stream and can then affect the entire body, this is why smoking causes so many different types of cancer.
Smoking causes lung cancer, which is also the most common cause of cancer death. It causes other cancers including mouth, pharynx (upper throat), nose and sinuses, larynx (voice box), oesophagus (food pipe), liver, pancreas, stomach, kidney, bowel, ovary, bladder, cervix, and some types of leukaemia.
Tobacco smoking has been associated with supression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells.
Smoking induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects.
- Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necroinflammation and fibrosis.
- Smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) that would be involved in liver cell injury.
- Smoking contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid.
- Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes.
- Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis.
- Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well.
Here are some of the possible ways smoking is thought to harm kidneys:
- Increases blood pressure and heart rate
- Reduces blood flow in the kidneys
- Increases production of angiotensin II (a hormone produced in kidney)
- Narrows the blood vessels in the kidneys
- Damages arterioles (branches of arteries)
- Forms arteriosclerosis (thickening and hardening) of the renal arteries
- Accelerates loss of kidney function
In addition to tobacco, smoking allows other toxins into the body. And according to the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP), studies have shown that smoking is harmful for the kidneys, and can cause kidney disease to progress and increases the risk for proteinuria (excessive amount of protein in the urine).
Smoker’s syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache, fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling sensation, pruritus and arthralgia.
Tips to reduce/stop smoking
- Talk to your doctor about nicotine-replacement therapies like gums and patches, as well as medicines to help you.
- Monitor yourself regularly through health screenings and keep fitness goals every six months based on the screening values
- Give yourself a quit date and throw out all tobacco products.
- Have a strategy for helping you overcome cravings:
- Chew gum, suck on hard candy, nibble on low-calorie snacks throughout the day or make your meals last longer.
- Call a telephone-quit line, check websites or talk to friends and family members for support.
- Try deep breathing or meditation until the urge passes.
- Join a quit-smoking program.
- Keep trying until you quit.
Modern Wellness introduces Smoker’s Wellness Screening - A health check package designed to cover test parameters that require attention if you are a current or former smoker.