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Pap smear test/ Liquid Based Cytology (LBC)

Oct 04, 2019

  • Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide.
  • One in every five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India.
  • In 2014, 1.2 lakh new cases and 67477 deaths due to cervical cancer occurred in India, contributing to 26% and 27% of global incidence and mortality respectively.
  • According to research by the National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, a woman dies of cervical cancer every eight minutes in India.
  • The nation alone, accounts for one-fourth of cervical cancer cases globally, and for 17 per cent of all cancer related deaths among women aged between 30 to 69 years.
  • It is also estimated that 1 in 53 Indian women are detected with cervical cancer during their lifetime compared to 1 in 100 women in more developed regions of the world.

A Pap smear test, also known as a Papanicolaou test/ Liquid Based Cytology (LBC), is a screening procedure to detect cervical cancer in women, which is caused by a sexually transmitted virus called ‘Human Papillomavirus’ (HPV). It involves collecting cells from your cervix (lower narrower portion of the uterus).

  • Conventional Pap testing is based on microscopic review of a cervical specimen smeared on a slide and stained.
  • Though successful in reducing the incidence of invasive cervical cancer, conventional Pap testing is limited, and there were no technological advancements for about 50 years.
  • In the late 1990s, however, new FDA-approved, automated, liquid- based technologies were introduced.
  • Liquid-based Pap test technology used at Modern Wellness requires placement of cervical samples into a vial of liquid preservative.
  • During processing, non-diagnostic debris is partially removed and the number of white and red blood cells is markedly reduced.
  • Fixed cells are then sedimented or filtered as a thin layer on a slide and stained.
  • Thus, epithelial cells, diagnostically relevant cells, and infectious organisms are more clearly visible.
  • The advantages of LBC include rapid fixation, even distribution of cells over a smaller slide area, and decreased obscuring background elements, such as blood, inflammation, and mucus.
  • The conventional (Pap) test is considered suboptimal due to false negative and false positive test results.
  • This is caused by the poor quality of sampling and preparation (obscuration by blood or inflammation, bad cell fixation, and inhomogeneous distribution of cells) and by errors in detection and interpretation.

Liquid based cytology (LBC) was developed as an alternative because only a representative portion of the sample is used, the residual material in the vial may be used for ancillary testing such as human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and other molecular tests

  • SAMPLE COLLECTION: The sample is collected, normally by a small brush, in the same way as for a conventional smear test, but rather than the smear being transferred directly to a microscope slide, the sample is deposited into a small bottle of preservative liquid.
PAP Smear Test

Apply gentle pressure until the surrounding bristles come into contact with the ectocervix and splay out across the cervix. Rotate the Cervix Broom (TM) 5 times in a CLOCKWISE direction to obtain the optimal amount of material.

Note - Do not rotate the broom anti-clockwise as little or no sample will be collected rendering the same inadequate. The bristles are 'D' shaped, and will only collect material if rotated clockwise.

Adequate sampling is done using broomlike device, central bristles of the broom inserted into the endocervical canal. Using pencil pressure, rotate the brush FIVE TIMES in a clockwise direction.

Rinse the broom as quickly into the preservative solution vial by pushing the broom into the bottom of the vial 10 times. Swirl the broom vigorously to further release the material and discard the collecting device.

Liquid Based Cytology Modern Wellness EZIPREP vials can be stored in room temperature itself. The preserved samples can also be used for immuno cytochemistry as well.

“Dear Doctor, We at Modern Wellness Diagnostic Services, along with our family of brands, offer a wide range of diagnostic tests and expertise covering the spectrum of medical conditions and specialty areas.

At Modern Wellness Diagnostic Services, we understand that information is everything when it comes to the health of your patients—and the health of your practice or organization. That’s why we work hard to get you the insights you need every day and to deliver them in a way that will make a real impact. Because in the end, knowing can drive the action that can change everything.”

“Modern Wellness would like to associate with you by offering 20% discount as an Inaugural Offer on Liquid Based Cytology testing at our labs Powered by NM Medical all-inclusive of the specialised LBC Kits”